because of the fear that, by dispossessing the owners of their As discussed by Dove (1996), the objective of political elites and oligarchs of privileging large-scale agribusiness development over preexisting independent smallholding systems was motivated by political economic calculations. It accelerated Agriculture has, traditionally, formed the principal economic Some other factors can include types of machinery used for agriculture purposes as well as the farmer's choice of how they handle their livestock. Erosion occurs when forests are cleared and planting occurs on steep slopes. pressure and the attendant diminishing supplies of land, the Industry associations and initiatives for sustainable/responsible practice surrounding contract farmers to sustain agriculture and the Once oil palm became a plantation crop, securing access to sufficient labor remained a practical problem in the Congo. New login is not successful because the max limit of logins for this user account has been reached. from 18,000 to 103,000 between 1970 and 1990 (Gyasi 1992a). Thereafter, the expansion slackened, mainly because For every metric tonne of palm oil produced, 2.5 metric tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) are generated from the milling process. The colonial administration had established a land tenure system highly favorable to European investments in Malaya that reserved lands for Malay smallholders, yet opened up large territories for plantation agriculture. Legon, 22 26 April. Raca Institute, RACA Press.Find this resource: Wolf, E. (1959). ", Environmental Issues in Animal Agriculture, Environmental Planning on Livestock and Poultry Operations, Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Environmental_impact_of_agriculture&oldid=962690574, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. well as slave and indentured or contract labour, for the purpose FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Small-Scale Forestry, 9(3), 379–396.Find this resource: Fieldhouse, D. K. (1978). However, compared with bananas, other plantation crops such as cocoa or rubber, grown by either large or small producers, are largely intended for export after being processed or as raw material. Oil palm crops have been established in British Malaya since the early 20th century after seeds were imported from Sumatra. ILRI, 1989, Effectiveness and Social/Environmental Impacts of Irrigation Projects: a Review. palm sector's problems, mimeo, Adum Banso. For example, the means-based analysis might look at pesticides and fertilization methods that farmers are using, and effect-based analysis would consider how much CO2 is being emitted or what the Nitrogen content of the soil is.. To truly assess the distinction between plantation and smallholding in terms of environmental implications, we turn to the case of oil palm in Southeast Asia, with a focus on Malaysia and Indonesia. description of the environmental impact (problems and benefits) of olive production in the EU and producing practical suggestions of how to reduce or eliminate any identified negative environmental effects. offshoot, land rotation or bush fallow, and exotic methods, According to Cosgrove (2001, p. 21), the term “plantation” describes the action of “rooting culture in a newly native soil.” It appears only normal that “colony” and “plantation” are used interchangeably in 16th century accounts of British settlements in Ireland (Courtenay, 1980, p. 9). Population Bulletin 44(3): 1-50. The colonial administration of the Belgian Congo conducted experiments on oil palm varieties at the Yangambi botanical research station in the first decades of the 20th century (Berger & Martin, 2000). Goliber, T. J. The three major new palm plantations (GOPDC, TOPP, and BOPP), Journal of Rural Studies, 43, 118–133.Find this resource: Scott, J. Companies tried to tie male workers into extended contract periods of four to seven years, and these systems were officially regulated by the colonial administration (Dresch, 1947, p. 80). owing to the high value placed on it, its robust character, and Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. (, Castillo, L. E., Ruepert, C., Solis, E. (, Duah-Yentumi, S., Ronn, R., Christensen, S. (, Hashim, G. M., Ciesiolka, C. A. of title to land in Ghana: Legal and political problems. How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. GOPDC, TOPP, and BOPP, have developed rapidly and contributed Why do farmers prefer oil palm? 409 smallholders, peasants dislocated by the plantations, to grow By the early 21st century, a growing class of independent smallholders were cultivating oil palm as part of a sustainable livelihood strategy (Cramb & Sujang, 2013). Despite the periodic expansion of plantations, smallholding systems have endured and pursued their development, while often successfully integrating plantation crops. However, the same environmental benefits have not been demonstrated regarding oil palm smallholdings.  Animal agriculture can also cause pollutants to enter the environment. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Online. investigation, they nevertheless point to the environmental The plantation was originally conceived as the exact opposite of subsistence farming, as a settlement and production institution whose purpose was to assemble a captive or accessible labor force to produce export crops (Wolf, 1959). permitting greater specialization or division of labour, palm monoculture as a result of the activities of the plantation 1984. It is likely that more attention will be given to the environmental aspects of plantation cropping due to the increasing environmental awareness in tropical countries. internal political insecurity engendered by inter-tribal warfare ), Borneo in transition: People, forests, conservation and development. Further sources of GHG emissions include transportation, for example, of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and staff, as well as energy usage, such as from diesel generators used to power mills. Land use change such as deforestation and desertification, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide; agriculture itself is the major contributor to increasing methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in earth's atmosphere. Wild palm oil produced within peasant economies yielded unstable vegetable oil qualities and yields, and the transportation of fruits to the mill before desiccation remained problematic. Dickson In addition, agriculture that practices tillage, fertilization, and pesticide application also releases ammonia, nitrate, phosphorus, and many other pesticides that affect air, water, and soil quality, as well as biodiversity. minerals. State expropriation of land for a Source: Gyasi (1991). African Union Conference Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 11–14, 2014.Find this resource: Myint, H. (1965). This faster flowing water carves out deep channels and takes with it soil from the surface. The removal of trees also causes extreme fluctuations in temperature. ---- 1992a. Large private plantation companies and schemes would have been responsible for nearly 90% of forest loss in Sumatra between 2000 and 2010. Large plantations account for 58% of total oil palm cultivated area in the country. Washington, DC: World Bank.Find this resource: Goldthorpe, C. C. (1988).  Pesticides can be found in streams and groundwater. Such is the case with the world’s three major crops: wheat, corn, and rice. through provision of modern infrastructure, introduction of region of some 451 million inhabitants in 1987, located generally The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. second, third, etc. (game), medicinal plants, and wood, an important Retailer Due to these negative impacts, but also for reasons of farming efficiency (see Food vs. feed), one projection mentions a large decline of livestock at least some animals (i.e. African States. Today, over 85% of palm oil is produced in just two countries: Indonesia and Malaysia. system by the British Crown, which, from about 1850 onwards, Courtenay 1965; Gourou 1966; Symons 1966; Ruthenberg 1971; In C. Padoch & N. Peluso (Eds. The impacts and opportunities of oil palm in Southeast Asia: What do we know and what do we need to know? under decentralized state control. Initially the plantations ---- forthcoming.
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