In geological tectonic terms, the Hindu Kush is part of the young Eurasian mountain range complex, which has risen since the late Tertiary period. A wider definition of the Hindu Kush would include a fourth region known as Hindu Raj in Pakistan. 487-532. Another line of imposing mountains, which includes Mounts Langar (23,162 feet [7,060 metres]), Shachaur (23,346 feet [7,116 metres]), Udrem Zom (23,376 feet [7,125 metres]), and Nādīr Shāh Zhāra (23,376 feet [7,125 metres]), leads to the three giant mountains of the Hindu Kush, which are Mounts Noshaq (Nowshāk; 24,557 feet [7,485 metres]), Istoro Nal (24,242 feet [7,389 metres]), and Tirich Mir. 1-10. Content of this web page is sourced from wikipedia ( http://simple.wikipedia.org). Most small bāzār locations in the area were only built in the 20th century and have no urban character. The Hindu Kush is a range of mountains. The lapis lazuli (lasurite) deposits in the area of Yamgān on the upper Kokča are renowned and have been mined since prehistoric times. It runs northeast to southwest and divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus River) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. Geologists, however, consider the Hindu Kush range to extend much farther west to the Iranian border. In the rest of the Hindu Kush stone houses (fewer clay houses) are the rule. To the east the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir range near the point where the borders of China, Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan, finally merging into minor ranges in western Afghanistan. . The population density reaches as many as several hundred inhabitants per km2, however, in the agricultural areas, indicating the extent of over-population in the Hindu Kush. Kramers and Wiet, pp. Communication is easier in this region, as roads have long since been built through the passes, such as the Shebar Pass (9,800 feet [2,987 metres]). The next largest mountain range is the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The fragmented topography has fostered a diverse population of various ethnic groups and religions. Although the style of settlement in the Hindu Kush is loose, individual houses are rather rare and mostly recent, that is, since the pacification of the land under Amir ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān or the British occupation (Grötzbach, 1972, p. 246; Haserodt, 1989, p. 90; Kussmaul, p. 29). 1330; tr., p. 53; Le Strange, Lands, p. 350). Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Karl Gratzl, ed., Hindukusch: Österreichische Forschungsexpedition in den Wakhan 1970, Graz, 1972. Traffic and settlements. . (Optional) Enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag. The traffic system was changed once again by the Afghan civil war (1978-2001) and the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Content of this web page is sourced from wikipedia ( http://simple.wikipedia.org). World Encyclopedia. "Hindu Kush Manučehr Sotuda, Tehran, 1367 Š./1988; tr. From about 1,300 to 2,300 m sklerophyllous forests are predominant with Quercus and Olea (wild olive); above that up to a height of about 3,300 m one finds coniferous forests with cedars, Picea, Abies, Pinus, and junipers. The Hindu Kush can be divided orographically into four parts (Grötzbach, 1990, pp. 14, 1965, pp. The erratic boundary line is the result of a series of compromises reached at the end of the 19th century between the British and the ruler of Afghanistan; called the Durand Line for the British negotiator Sir Mortimer Durand, it has been inherited by the modern states of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The border with the Karakoram and the Hindu Raj is marked in the east by the deep saddle of the Baroghil (Bāruḡil) Pass (3,804 m) and the valleys of the Yarḵun, Mastuj, and Chitral (q.v. The south of the Hindu Kush is inhabited by Nuristanis and Pašais, who, particularly the former, are different from the other ethnic groups. Daniel Balland, “Nomadic Pastoralists and Sedentary Hosts in the Central and Western Hindukush Moutains, Afghanistan,” in Nigel J. R. Allen, Gregory W. Knapp, and Christoph Stadel, eds., Human Impact on Mountains, Totowa, N. J., 1988, pp. Hindu Kush -- a mountain range located between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Karl Jettmar, Schuyler Jones, and Max Klimburg, Die Religionen des Hindukush, Die Religionen der Menschheit 4/1, Stuttgart, 1975. Glaciers are poorly developed, but the mountain passes—which include Putsigrām (13,450 feet [5,000 metres]), Verān (15,400 feet [4,694 metres]), Rām Gol (15,400 feet [4,694 metres]), and Anjoman (13,850 feet [4,221 metres])—are high, making transmontane communications difficult. It starts near Pamir in the north of Gilgit extending in the southwest deep into the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, Tirich Mir is here. Vosges (mountain range, France) 181-209). The deficit has to be filled by other earnings and by buying food. Return to Mountain Ranges from the Hindu Kush, Copyright Â© 2010-2020 MountainProfessor.com, Return to Mountain Ranges from the Hindu Kush. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hindu-kush. In the Pakistani eastern Hindu Kush the Kho are the predominant population, who speak the Dardic language Khowar. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Some content of the original page may have been edited to make it more suitable for younger readers, unless otherwise noted. The north and northwest sides of the mountains receive less rain, which falls mainly in winter and spring. H. Yule, “An Essay on the Geography and History of the Regions on the upper Waters of the Oxus,” in John Wood, ed., A Personal Narrative of a Journey to the Source of the River Oxus, London, 1872, pp. Within the mountain area, however, non-agricultural trades hardly exist, for which reason temporary and seasonal work in the forelands is very common. A. Scheibe, ed., Deutsche im Hindukusch: Bericht der Deutschen Hindukuschexpedition 1935 der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Berlin, 1937. B. I. Iskandarov, Gindukush vo vtoroĭ polovine 19 v., Moscow, 1968. Jahrhudert, Afghanische Studien 4, Wiesbaden, 1972. Despite the high expenditure of labor, the agricultural production in many villages of the Hindu Kush is not enough to make them self-sufficient. Ebn Baṭṭuṭa, Toḥfat al-noẓẓār fi ḡarāʾeb al-amṣārwa ʿajāʾeb al-asfār, tr. In the Sālang valley many villages and hamlets are built like a fortress onto the slope. 101-48. Idem, Kulturgeograph-ischer Wandel in Nordost-Afghanistan seit dem 19. What is Hindu Kush? Parent Range: Hindu Kush: Activity type: Mountaineering, Hiking, Backcountry Skiing : Summit(s): N/D : Elevation: 3 107 m / 10 194 ft : Cost of climbing: N/D : Claim it ; Add to wishlist . The highest peak is Mount Tirich Mir, which rises near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border to 25,230 feet (7,690 metres). Kramers and Wiet, p. 435) called the Panjšēri stupid and corrupt, a reputation that followed them deep into the 19th century (Wood, p. 276). 115-34. In the southern Hindu Kush, but also in other parts of the mountains, many villages outside the irrigated land are positioned on the slope of the valley in such a way that the roof of a lower-lying house functions as the terrace of the one above. Hindu Kush (hĭn`do͞o ko͝osh), a high mountain system, extending c.500 mi (800 km) W from the Pamir Knot, N Pakistan, into NE Afghanistan; rising to 25,236 ft (7,692 m) in Tirich Mir, on the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan.Glaciated and receiving heavy snowfall, the mountains have permanently snow-covered peaks and little vegetation. . In the main it consists of metamorphic rocks (schist, gneiss, marble, etc. . The Khyber Pass once was an important strategic gateway because it cut through the Spin Ghar instead of through the Hindu Kush, thus offering a comparatively easy route between the valley of the Kābul and the plains of Punjab; the pass lost its importance after it was superseded by a more accessible pass to the north. Even the largest urban settlements such as Chitral Town (11,000 inhabitants) have partly rural features; the irrigated fields often begin behind the shop fronts of the bāzārs. On the west of this range is the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan which separates Gilgit Agency from Tajikistan. Between these extremes the Pakistan-Afghanistan border follows the main watershed of the Hindu Kush throughout its eastern region, from Lupsuk Peak just north of the Karambar Pass to the Dorāh Pass just south of Mount Tirich Mir. This is particularly true of Panjšēr, Andarāb, and Varsaj in the Afghan Hindu Kush. The western limit also is uncertain, as the mountains lose height and fan out into minor ranges in Afghanistan. XII, Fasc. Historically, the passes have been of great military significance, providing access to the northern plains of India for such conquerors as Alexander the Great, the king of Macedonia; the Mongols Genghis Khan and Timur (Tamerlane); and their descendant Bābur, the first Mughal emperor. Small groups of Kafirs who in 1896 fled into neighboring British India still live, together with Kalash, in a few valleys of lower Chitral close to the Afghan border. Cattle are also kept in varying numbers on the high pastures up to the glaciers.
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