Caballero, A., Bravo, I. Our genetic analyses of field samples revealed that 13–100% of males per colony (n = 8 males per 10 colonies) were diploid, and that all newly mated queens (n = 40) were single-mated. ISSN 2045-2322 (online). Ecol. Solenopsis geminata is commonly referred to as the Tropical Red Fire Ant. Behav. All rights reserved. Insectes Soc. Wetterer, J. K. Worldwide spread of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genet. Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. Solenopsis geminata is classified as a “hot climate specialist” as it resides only within hot arid regions. For larvae, males, and queens we used the Zymo Research Tissue and Insect DNA MiniPrepTM kit following the supplier’s instructions. Add to Wishlist. We used a generalized linear model (GLM, glm function) followed by ANOVA F-test (Anova function with test = F in the car package45) with the total number of brood and adult workers per colony as the response variable, the number of queens per colony (1, 2, 3 or 5), the presence of large larvae, and the mean initial queen weight as fixed factors. We recorded queen mortality and the cause of death three times per week. Version 8.42. Solenopsis geminata at cotton ball and sugar solution bait (Lautoka, Fiji). This genetic paradox is well-studied in L. humile and the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta). Both social forms, monogyne and polygyne, have been reported to occur in native populations of S. geminata24 and invasive populations in Florida23,33 and the Galapagos islands34. Stat. To obtain another estimation of DMP queen frequency, we divided the frequency of DMP colonies by the number of queens for each multiple queen treatment. Most ants killed within 24 h and the toxin is passed to the queens, usually effectively killing the whole colony. Pleometrotic colonies can also begin foraging earlier than single-queen colonies (e.g. According to microsatellite allele scoring, from one to all (13–100%) of the 8 sampled adult males per colony were diploid. CSD and male diploidy have been found in over 60 species of Hymenoptera including S. invicta17. The production of worker pupae and adult workers was lower in DMP colonies. In some populations as much as 20% of S. invicta queens are match-mated and produce diploid males18,19. Care must be taken when considering its use in ecologically sensitive areas, irrigated areas or near natural water ways. Genetics 165, 1853–1867 (2003). In the related S. invicta, the production of sterile diploid males also represents a burden to the colony10,18,21,22. red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta native fire ant,Solenopsis geminata Heads of the workers of the southern fire ant, Solenopsis xyloni are not as disproportionately large as those of workers of Solenopsis geminata. If triploid queens are absent in the field, it may indicate that diploid males are aspermic, contribute to the production of sub-viable queens, or that reproductive triploid queens are executed by workers as suggested for S. invicta15. 1-55: 42. For example, three and five-queened colonies were 45.1–49.6% more likely to have worker pupae at the end of the claustral period and reared on average 5 to 7 times more pupae than haplometrotic colonies. 1; LM: ANOVA, χ2 = 11.7166, P < 0.01; post hoc tests P < 0.01 for pairwise comparisons DMP vs. non DMP in single queen and two-queened colonies, P > 0.05 for all other pairwise comparisons). Small infestations of S. geminate can be eradicated by the application of chemicals such as hydramethylnon (for example, applied as the commercially available formicide AmdroÂ®). Number of queens in founding associations of the ponerine ant Pachycondyla villosa. coordinated the study and helped draft the manuscript. Heterozygosity at one locus indicates diploidy. & Wilson, E. O. Les invertï¿½brï¿½s introduits dans l archipel nï¿½o-calï¿½donien : espï¿½ces envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes. The initial mean queen weight did not differ among treatments (Kruskal-Wallis test, Kruskal-Wallis χ2 = 2.7102, df = 3, P = 0.439). Nests are in the soil, usually in the form of a large exposed soil mound. Chemical: Chemical control of S. geminata is very easy using baits laced with the active constituent, hydramethylnon (Notes on the control of Solenopsis spp.). 3, 307–316 (1991). & Tschinkel, W. R. Queen dimorphism and reproductive strategies in the fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Solenopsis geminata queens can lay up to 11000 eggs per week at full capacity so fasten your seatbelt, you're in for ride. Entomol. The AntWeb image comparison tool lets you compare images of ants at the subfamily, genus, species or specimen level. 22, 263–288 (1977). However, many invasive species successfully establish despite having experienced a genetic bottleneck4,6,32. We allowed queens to initiate nests for 23 days, which was 1 day after the emergence of the first generation of workers in our pilot study. BAH/35/2004-1. Reproductive strategies of the Fire Ant. Our GLM with the number of worker pupae and adult workers as the response variable showed that DMP colonies had significantly fewer worker pupae and adult workers than non-DMP colonies (Fig. Evol. 40, 81–102 (2009). 2006b. Perfecto, I. and Vandermeer, J. For example, we found that the three microsatellite DNA markers used on queen samples had 3 to 7 alleles per locus (Supplementary Table D1) whereas the same markers used in a worldwide study of S. invicta had 13 to 22 alleles per locus in some sites situated within the native range of S. invicta51. Queens seek moist areas within a few kilometres of the parent colony. In the lowlands it is found not only in the open but may also penetrate into forest understory, albeit at lower density. Ecol. 2005. See How to Cite AntWeb. The probability that we failed to detect double mating drops rapidly. Queen dimorphism and reproductive strategies in the fire ant. August 2011 um 01:21 Uhr bearbeitet. Workers swarm over the nest surface and surrounding vegetation, and they appear to be driving the males and alate queens from the nest. Polyandry can potentially reduce the occurrence of match mating and increase the number of alleles at the CSD locus (or loci) carried by mated queens forming a founder group9,27,28,29. Pauline Lenancker. During warm months winged individuals are found in large numbers in mature colonies. Commonwealth of Australia. fire ants. Rev. We acknowledge, however, that the low number of DMP colony replicates for these treatments (n = 5 and n = 16, for one and two-queened colonies, respectively) might have resulted in the significantly higher weight loss in non-DMP colonies. The toxin is highly soluble and harms aquatic invertebrates. Of the 487 colonies reared (n = 122 ± 6 per treatment), 106 had queens that died before the end of the experiment. 0, 9–57 (2016). The remaining colonies had between one and two alleles per locus, probably due to the low diversity at our six loci (we detected between two and seven alleles at each locus). However, many populations of successful invaders began as small populations having also gone through a genetic bottleneck4 (e.g. Nuptial flights do not seem highly syncronized among colonies and they may occur at any time of year. Biol J Linn Soc 34, 105–117 (1988). PubMed Cite this article. Hawley, D. M., Hanley, D., Dhondt, A. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=169 on 26-10-2020. Scientific Reports Please click on AntWeb: Solenopsis geminata for more images and assistance with identification. We used the proprietary software ‘Geneious®’ (Biomatters Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand) to visualize trace files, fit the internal ladder, and identify microsatellite alleles. Antweb is funded from private donations and from grants from the National Science Foundation, DEB-0344731, EF-0431330 and DEB-0842395. It would be useful to know whether queens can differentiate diploid from haploid male larvae, what type of recognition cue(s) they use, and whether this behaviour is restricted to the claustral period. Sociobiol. All authors edited and gave final approval for publication. In Williams, D. F. Our findings about the benefits of pleometrosis are unlikely to be an artefact of a laboratory experiment. 2005., for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research.The Invasive ant risk assessment for Solenopsis geminata can be viewed at Solenopsis geminata risk assessment\r\nPlease see Solenopsis geminata information sheet for more information on biology, distribution, pest status and control technologies.\r\n. Crozier, R. H. Heterozygosity and sex determination in haplo-diploidy. Small infestations of S. geminate can be eradicated by the application of chemicals such as hydramethylnon (for example, applied as the commercially available formicide AmdroÂ®). Please see Solenopsis geminata information sheet for more information on biology, distribution, pest status and control technologies. We found that the probability of missing one double-mated queen (i.e. Workers have powerful stings and are the bane of children running barefoot in the grass. Please follow this link for a fully illustrated Lucid key to common invasive ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae] of the Pacific Island region [requires the most recent version of Java installed]. J. Kansas Entomol. The low genetic variability of L. humile in its invasive range may have resulted in selection for traits that encourage its spread and growth11. 10, 137–147 (1982). Scientific Reports cheatgrass: Bromus tectorum5, Argentine ant: Linepithema humile6, house finch: Carpodacus mexicanus7, solitary sweat bee: Lasioglossum leucozonium8, Asian honey bee: Apis cerana9). Hydramethylnon is a stomach toxicant spread between individuals in a colony by trophylaxis. We tested whether queens that died of natural death were lighter than surviving queens using a Kruskal-Wallis test (kruskal.test function). Behav. J. Smith., Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1893, pp. Proc. The highest peaks within the allele size range for S. geminata (Supplementary Table B1) were determined. Small populations are at risk of accumulating deleterious mutations via inbreeding and eventually going extinct2,3. Solenopsis geminata is the tropical fire ant. Part 2, Ann. The largest workers have disproportionately large and square-shaped heads. We found similar results when analysing eggs and worker larvae separately (Table 1). Tschinkel, W. R. Resource allocation, brood production and cannibalism during colony founding in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.
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